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Climate Change

The Importance Of Ecology – Sustainable And Sustainable Development

The our species as well as the rest of this planet's life forms have been exposed to many dangers thanks to our lack of preservation of the environment. What has this brought us as a society? For one it has led to a rediscovery of what it means for many to live in harmony with the environment. Not like many think—hippies communing with nature—rather self-aware as we become aware of the damage we have caused to nature and the need to replace our old understanding. In this sense, society, in the present century and since the middle of the previous century, has turned its sight to ecology as a science that allows it to preserve nature under a scientific vision.

Governments throughout the world have rethought development styles with a more environmentalistic orientation (at least in theory), which has led them to understand our nature and their behavior through a science as interesting as the ecology.

Why?

Because it encompasses the study of all the interactions of living and non-living beings with the environment in which they encounter and the way they achieve their balance, in order to understand what phenomena cause an imbalance in the same. Through the increasing exploitation of natural resources and the degradation of ecosystems, we raise questions about the permanence and perpetuity of the resources needed to sustain the growth of human populations. These changes include the alteration of biotic communities, the extinction of species, changes in the resilience and resilience of ecosystems to disturbances, ecological processes that depart from their historical variability, changes in the nature of ecosystems and decoupling of important biogeochemical cycles (many of these changes due to the global warming phenomenon). Only by studying how the elements of nature interact with each other whether an understanding of the current environmental problem has been achieved, in such a way that the elements that are affecting the delicate balance of the environment have been found and understood.

These alarming processes of progressive destruction of our natural environments around the world have prompted recognition of the possible role of ecology in decision-making to reconcile the management of natural resources by the processes of growth and development of each nation.

While the challenges they face have a lot to do with the conservation and management of natural environments in countries with a very complex socio-economic problem, one which warrants short-term solutions in terms of survival and development, it is necessary to take into account that it is impossible to preserve and manage something that is not fully known.

That is why it is important to achieve a better understanding of the physical and biological processes that generate the unbridled growth and development of the planet's human populations should be one of the fundamental priorities of the ecological work of not just the developed countries, rather all nations in the present century.

Understanding the differences between sustainable and sustainable development is vital to understanding how environmental conception has gained ground since the end of the last century. The term sustainable refers to what is maintained over time, and sustainable to the elements necessary to live, in particular it refers more clearly to the type of content that development should have.

The first conception to consider itself at the global level was sustainable development.

When looking for a definition to describe—sustainable development—it is almost exclusively reduced to economic development, the growth of which is measured as an increase in gross domestic product or per capita income). It implies in its description that economic growth is constant over time (sustained economic growth) and, on the other hand, refers to environmental conservation as a localized policy that does not question or imply a rethinking of patterns consumption, production of goods, waste generation or impact on nature, but a simple isolation of certain geographical areas, no matter what happens in their environment (social problems, exclusion, etc.). Another characteristic of this current train of thought is that it does not give any relevance to social participation as a means of ensuring the sustainability of sustainable development, but, when it is raised, it is expressed as a vertical process, oriented up and down, where decision-making is unique to the spheres of power, preventing the population from participating in them, turning human ensembles into mere recipients of benefits passively, not allowing the empathy of the population to connect with the development processes.

This has been one of the major

Sustainable development, on the other hand, is interested not only in economic growth, but also how it is produced and how the created wealth is distributed. It emerges from the United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report in 1996 (PDF), where it is established as a key element for economic growth and development that there is equity in the distribution of wealth, because the greater the the equality with which they are distributed and economic opportunities, the more likely they will result in an improvement of human well-being. This conception can be summed up as the need for inclusive and equitable economic growth, and to abandon that growth that is exclusionary and polarized, since the latter destroy the ecosystems in which they operate.

Here is an excerpt:

To support economic growth as a means to enrich people's lives, the Report demonstrates why:

  • Over the past 15 years the world has seen spectacular economic advance for some countries – and unprecedented decline for others;
  • Widening disparities in economic performance are creating two worlds – ever more polarized;
  • Everywhere, the structure and quality of growth demand more attention – to contribute to human development, poverty reduction and long-term sustainability;
  • Progress in human development has mostly continued – but too unevenly;
  • New approaches are needed to expand and improve employment opportunities, so that people can participate in growth – and benefit from it; and
  • Economic growth is not sustainable without human development.

The sustainable development to which is referred to emphasizes environmental sustainability as a fundamental element, which refers to the need for the impact of the development process not to irreversibly destroy ecosystems, since the frontier of possibility of environmental use (defined as the production possibilities that are compatible with environmental restrictions) is currently very narrow. On the other hand, social sustainability related to strengthening a style of development that does not perpetuate or deepen poverty or social exclusion, but has as one of its central objectives the eradication of it and social justice and, on the other hand horizontal social participation in decision-making. Finally, economic sustainability, which is understood as interrelated economic growth with the two elements above.

In this way, the achievement of sustainable human development will be the result of a new type of economic growth that promotes social equity, a substantial improvement in the quality of life of the vast majority of a society and establishes a non-destructive relationship with nature.

Categories
Antique

Music in Ancient Rome

Roman music?

In fact you will find fewer examples of music than one would think, given the Roman's culture inspired many aspects of our modern western society, Rome did not, however, contribute much to music as the Greeks did. Although they conquered their territories, Greek culture was always more important and viewed as a source of culture. To alleviate this deficit the Romans adapted Greek music to suite their character. It seems that the state or the Roman representatives themselves did not value the music, some condemned it and said that restraint should be sought when music was involved, such as Marcus Tullius Cicero.

This did not however limit it in its popularity where the virtuosos of music were respected and considered throughout the Empire. They studied under the tutelage of memorable teachers; they had to lead a methodical and healthy life; they toured concerts around the Empire and received impressive payments and numerous patrician families continued the practice that had begun with the famous Gracos, Tiberius and Cayo Sempronio around 110 BC, of sending their children to music schools to learn how to sing and dance.

Among these virtuosos, the Greeks stood out as: Terpnos, great cystolist (under Nero,) Polón and Mesomedes of Crete, among others. Actors of Etruscan origin who danced to the rhythm of the tibiae, a type of oboe, instrument similar to the Greek aulos (a type of clarinet), sometimes accompanied by vocal singing. While it might seem a luxurious lifestyle, actors were denied the same political and civic rights, in fact they were actively denied the same treatment afforded to ordinary Roman citizens. At that time they were viewed as having low social status, not being uncommon for actors to be held as slaves, often being beaten when they preformed unfavorably.

Both acted performances and dance were accompanied by music.

Of these types of music we have virtually nothing left, except brief fragments, that Terencio used in one of his theatrical performances. Carmen Saecularis (full text), a poem for a children's choir by Quintus Horatius Flaccus, premiered in 17 BC.

During the reign of Servius Tullius (578-534 BC), the sixth king of Rome, groups of musicians were instituted in the Roman Legions. They had army NCO status, the same as the flag bearers. Later, around 400 BC, these Roman military and ceremonial groups consisted of flutes, horns and trumpets of various shapes and sizes and peculiar instruments such as the flute and the lute or curved trumpet.

Lucius Cornelius Sila (138-80 BC) had among his servers the rich group of musicians, which counted among his own slaves a large number of instrumentalists and singers who were daily responsible for maintaining a permanent musical atmosphere in his residence. In general many slaves were trained as musicians.

According to the historian Paul Henry Lang, Emperor Caligula listened to orchestral music while navigating the Bay of Naples. (Pompey) and Nero, in addition to exhibiting his own qualities as a singer and played the cithara (a type of lyre), implemented in the year 60 AD the Neronian games, in them music played an important role. Later, Emperor Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus) established the Capitoline Games, in which the performance of instrumentalists, musicians, songwriters and poets was awarded. Thus transforming music into spectacle.

In multiple acts and ceremonies, military and rituals, it became frequent to use various instruments such as the Buccina, folded trumpet with detachable mouthpiece, the tibia (alos) which, at first was a bone flute, then became transversal and the tympanum or tambourine. The lyre was also very popular.

Later, with the Roman conquests, music was enriched by contributions from Egypt, Syria and Spain.

In the time of Emperor Caesar Augustus (63 BC-14 A.D.), the aulos, an instrument inherited from the Greeks, increased its dimensions and became an instrument of the similar size to the tubas. The historian Ammiano Marcellin (340-400 A.D.), tells us about the use of large lire that had to be transported in wagon. And so did the number of performers, forming ensembles of impressive musicians, a tradition that already existed in Egypt. Lucius Anneo Seneca, preceptor of Nero speaks of the number of instruments, including organs.

But perhaps where you can best appreciate the musical genre is as an accompaniment to theatre, in places such as circuses, theaters and amphitheaters, as in Greece. Unlike in Greece, choir parts were not as important in Rome. There were parts sung with accompaniment generally, which could be single or double, repeating these twice. The pairs had a tuning just like the others. In Rome, the recited parts, called deverbia were followed by cantica or parts sung by a soloist or a duo. In between, recitals were offered.

As you can see music in Rome was not innovative, it was appropriated, but it was also became a crucial aspect of their culture. Though it is not a product of ancient Rome, much thanks is to be given in their preservation and patronage to the art which helped the seed of European music survive.

Categories
Antique

Rome Wasn’t Built In A Day

The Origins of Rome

History and legend blend irretrievably together when we attempt to explain the origins of Rome. Leaving aside what tradition tells, long before the city was founded, the peninsula of Italy was inhabited by many different groups of people. Some of whom were from the interior of Europe, who crossed the Alps and settled, some in the north, were the case of the Etruscans and the Umbri. Others, the Latinos, occupied and settled in the valley of the Tiber River. The Samnites settled in the hills and valleys of the south of the peninsula. Later, they would also enter through the Alps, Celtic peoples (the Romans called them Gauls).

The Etruscans settled, the penetrated to the very heart of the country, beginning approximately from the 6th century BC. They ended up forming a wide league of cities, some large and with good seaports which allowed for their expansion. The Etruscans formed a higher class within the population, where they obtained their resources from various sources: livestock, agriculture and mining. They also had a textile and metallurgical industry. Socially, they were given an advantage due to their knowledge of Greek, both culturally and in the military, sporting and religious fields.

Politically, the Etruscans headed in two directions.

Across the sea they nurtured some friendship with Phoenicians and Carthaginians who thanked the Etruscans' pirate tactics against common enemies. At that time it was known that the Etruscans were more pirates than merchants. With those who did not entrust them with their affections, they could turn to their neighbor, the Greeks for fair treatment. Continued battles to control maritime domains towards Etruscans and Greeks did not imped the relationships with third parties.

This was the panorama at sea, by land the Etruscan advancement was constant, their ambition led them to Po valley in the north and Campania in the south. They completely occupied the Valley until the Celts appeared in the 5th century BC.

Their incursions and movements to the south were mostly successful, only partly halted by the political and economic position and situation, also cultural, of two italic peoples on the peninsula, the Samnites and the Latino-Faliscan. The Samnites, making close contacts with the Greeks, learned a lot from them, to fight, to perfect their weapons, building and fortification. Trade also with the Greeks, enriched them. These Samnites managed to put a limit on Etruscan expansion to the south.

Lazio was another destabilizing element for the Etruscans. It was their situation on the peninsula that gave them have access to the sea by an Italic people. The only rivals of Lazio were the Volsci, a mountain tribe of the Apennines that separate the Lazio from Campania, their encounters were bloody and continuous. They acted as an independent state without being incorporated, neither by Etruscans nor Greeks, apart from their connection to the sea was of vital importance for their developments, both of the Lazio and of the Latin people. The entire civilizing current from Greece, Etruria and Carthage, contributed in raising the economic and social level of both Lazio and Latino-Faliscan.

City Foundation

The first vestiges of foundations in Rome appear in the hills of Lazio, where life was prosperous, rich and rewarding. It is in these hills that the institutions that made the backbone for Rome were founded. It must be considered that all these beginnings are not definitive, producing swings over the course of the years. It was possible that there were also two foundations, one by the Latinos on Palatine Hill and one by the Sabines in the Quirinacon. According to local tradition, the belief was preserved that the Palatine, or, in other words, the primitive Rome, was a colony of two Latin cities in the vicinity; Alba and Lavinium. Surely such a location was chosen because the only point of the lower Tiber that offered facilities to cross from the left bank to the right, from Latin to the Etruscan soil, was secured. In front of the Palatine there is a small island on the Tiber that made it easy to build a wooden bridge there.

All these communities that were grouped together and exercised as such a unit that they acquired a great and emerging force as a city and as a people.

Our knowledge of the history of Rome in the preceding centuries, at the beginning of its foundation, the 8th, 7th and first half of 6BC, is undoubtedly imperfect. Various indications and various conjectures of various historians, make it clear that there no single explanation for the final constitution of the city.

According to history, the origins of Rome date back to 753 BC. In order to protect the Tiber from the Etruscan threat, seven Latin villages in the Lazio region formed a confederation. But its strategic and commercial value attracted the Etruscans, who imposed their dominance over the villages that originated the authentic foundation. The city was walled, its streets were planned and the marshy valleys that surrounded it were curated through the drainage channels, and joined the banks of the Tiber with a bridge until it finally became a true city. With the consequent economic development Rome, grew rapidly, mainly due to two causes: proximity to Erutria and access to the mouth of the Tiber, thanks to the latter, trade with the outlying communities entered and departed on Phoenician and Greek ships. Together with economic development, a dominant aristocracy, a social order, based on blood ties and hermetism, was allowed to develop. The Etruscan upper class, dominant against villages and settlements is organized and intervened in the early governance of the city with the beginning of the monarchical era. Until, finally, it emerged as the Rome we now recognize.

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Uncategorized

Canon Muratori

The Muratorian fragment also called Canon Muratori, is the oldest known cast or index of the New Testament books. It was discovered by Ludovico Antonio Muratori (1672–1750), father of Italian historiography, in Latin from the 8th century, originating from Bobbio Abbey and discovered in the Ambrosian Library in Milan.

The fragment contains 85 lines, written in a Latin full of Sermo Vulgaris expressions (common latin), which is at times difficult to fully understand. It is partially destroyed at the beginning, missing the first – or at least the first few lines, which probably refer to the Gospels of Matthew and Mark.

The era of writing must be fixed in the second half of the 2nd century (ca. 170), an extreme in which most scholars agree. The author is no doubt, to the author of the Pius I, bishop of Rome (140—155), in the lines. 74-76: "Pastorem uero nuperrime temporibus nostris in Urbe Roma Hermas conscripsit, sedente cathedra Urbis Romae ecclesiae Pio Episcopo fratre eius;" (Very recently, in our times, in the city of Rome, Hermas wrote – the Pastor-, sitting as bishop in the Chair of the Church of Rome his brother Pio). Pius I ruled the Church from 140 to 150.

Translation of the fragment:

… in these, however, he was present, and so he wrote them down.

The third book of the gospel: according to Luke.

After Christ's ascension, Luke the physician, whom Paul had taken with him as a legal expert, wrote in his own name agreeing with [Paul's] opinion. However, he himself never saw the Lord in the flesh, and therefore, as he could continue… he began to tell it from the birth of John.

The fourth gospel is of John, one of the disciples.

When his co-disciples and bishops encouraged him, John said, "Fast with me for three days from today, and whatever was revealed to us, let us tell each other." Tonight it was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that John should write everything in his own name, and that they should review it. Therefore, although different beginnings are taught for the various books of the gospel, it makes no difference to the faith of believers, for in each of them everything has been declared by a single Spirit, concerning their nativity, passion, and resurrection, their association with his disciples, his double advent — his first in humility, when he was despised, which has already passed; his second in real power, his return. No wonder, therefore, that John presented the details so constantly separately in his letters as well, saying of himself: "What we have seen with our eyes and heard with our ears and touched with our hands, these things have written." Because in this way he pretends to be not only a spectator but one who listened, and also one who wrote in an orderly manner the wonderful facts about our Lord.

The Acts of all the Apostles have been written in a book. Addressing the excellent Theophilus, Lucas includes one by one the things that were done before his own eyes, which he clearly shows by omitting Peter's passion, and also Paul's departure from the City to Spain.

As for Paul's letters, they themselves show those who want to understand from where and for what purpose they were written. First he [wrote] to the Corinthians forbidding divisions and heresies; then to the Galatians [prohibiting] circumcision; to the Romans he wrote extensively about the order of the scriptures and also insisting that Christ be the central theme of the scriptures. It is necessary for us to give a well-argued report of all of these since the blessed Apostle Paul himself, following the order of his predecessor John, but without naming him, writes to seven churches in the following order: first to the Corinthians, second to the Ephesians, thirdly to the Philippians, in fourth place to the Colossians, fifth to the Galatians, in sixth place to the Thessalonians, and in seventh place to the Romans. However, even if [the message] is repeated to the Corinthians and Thessalonians for their reproof, a church is recognized as spread throughout the world. For John also, though he writes to seven churches in the Revelation, yet he writes to all. In addition, [Paul writes] a [letter] to Philemon, one to Titus, two to Timothy, in love and affection; but have been sanctified for the honor of the Catholic Church in regulating ecclesiastical discipline.

It is said that there is another letter on Paul's behalf to the Laodiceans, and another to the Alexandrians, [both] falsified according to the heresy of Martion, and many other things that cannot be received in the Catholic Church, since it is not appropriate for the poison to mix with honey.

But the letter of Judas and the two superscribed by the name of John have been accepted in the Catholic [church]; Wisdom also, written by Solomon's friends in his honor. John's Revelation we also receive, and Peter's, which some of ours do not allow to be read in the church. But the Pastor was written by Hermas in the city of Rome quite recently, in our own day, when his brother Pius occupied the bishop's chair in the church of the city of Rome; therefore it can be read, but it cannot be given to the people in the church, nor among the prophets, for their number is complete, nor among the apostles at the end of time.

But we don't receive any of the writings of Arsinoes, or Valentinus or Metiades at all. They have also composed a psalm book for Marcion [these we reject] along with Basilides [and] the Asian founder of the Catafrigios.

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Uncategorized

Ways to Help Preserve Nature

Sometimes I am given pause to ask; "What can I do to contribute to nature conservation?"

Here are some of the things that I have on my list to answer that question:

  1. Recycling
  2. Use less water
  3. Lower heating consumption
  4. Get around on the road, by bike or by bus, better than by car
  5. Turn off unused devices
  6. Eating less meat and few industrial products
  7. Eating natural things that occur near my home and without pesticides
  8. Buy fair trade
Categories
Climate Change Politics

What Is The Importance Of Environmental Conservation?

The conception of a green world has gained increasingly important in the space of our society. Fridays For Future, Extinction Rebellion, and other grassroots style movements have taken a prominent position in media, opening up a platform for debate about the current state of our planet.

The need for environmental preservation arises from the realization of the serious damage we have caused to our ecosystems through the unbridled negative transformation that they have undergone because of our thwarted attempts at development. We have not understood the need for economic growth that goes hand in hand with the preservation of our environment, because the predation of nature for abundant economic benefits has been easier than replenishing the damage which originates from taking their resources indiscriminately.

Environmental conservation arises from the need to preserve all natural resources in a manner parallels with development, in such a way that it allows us to equate on a balance the growth and development of our country with the conservation of our resources seeking to support the economic growth we want for our nation.

The rapid growth of our population resulting from the increased disposition of economic resources in the country, has led to an unequal distribution in our geographical spaces that have serious consequences to our natural resources.

With concern we can see how our ecosystems are negatively altered, even allowing the disappearance of large tracts of plant resources by the indiscriminate settlement and disruption in these areas.

The government has taken this initiative, justifying it on many occasions (Keystone Pipeline), yet bringing with it serious consequences for our planet. Such indiscriminate conduct throughout the world has led to; deforestation and the inadequate use of soils, encouraging unsafe construction in this newly won area (developing regions are most often afflicted where environmental conservation and poverty are at odds), sometimes suffering the onslaught of the elements (such as rain, typhoon, and earth quakes), which result in the loss of life and property, due to the inadequate use of spaces unfit for the location of many homes. By abandoning the invaded areas all that is left if a trail of destruction of our ecosystem and suffering. What's more without any conscious effort to regulate and restore these areas with policies that allow their recovery and educate the population it is an endless cycle.

Every day we watch as pollution ravages our once green environment, the product of the disinterest of environmental protection agencies, tasked with preserving them for the enjoyment of the entire population. The expansion of spaces for manufacturing enterprises, the construction of residential complexes in extensions of green land, the claim placed on these spaces have led to an increase in pollution of nature, without modern policies to address this serious problem we have resigned ourselves to a state in which we remain inactive. We can see how many of the manufacturing companies affect our atmosphere by emanating a large amount of gases and other pollutants, producing air pollution and contributing to the phenomenon of global warming. Excessive population growth, on the other hand, has led to an increase in pollution in the form of solid waste, which, in addition to the absence of recycling policies in many areas of the developing world, has increased the pollution of our soils exponentially. The poor arrangement of excreta and wastewater pollutes our natural channels, without appreciating the need for processing policies for the decontamination of our planet's waters.

Thus arises the importance of becoming aware of our environment amid the chaos of modern economic and population growth. We must establish global policies that allow us to concatenate the growth and development with the preservation of our planet's natural environments, making our development sustainable and feasible for our ever growing world population.

If we ask ourselves what to do to preserve our environment, we must start from the idea of understanding why we should preserve it. Fridays for Future? But what future? First, we must guarantee the life of our ecosystems in order to improve the quality of life of our population, offering it an environment that ensures an ever purer air quality and natural resources that provide the elements necessary for its survival on a constant basis, without the persistent fear that they may become extinct as a result of their misuse and preservation. This is ensured by the establishment of stronger policies to regulate the provision of pollutants in our environment and the creation of measures for the processing of pollutants in wastewater to ensure the decontamination of our rivers and seas (plastic particles do not originate from our oceans). In this way, we will be ensuring that present and future generations can enjoy all the resources that our nature is able to provide.

On the other hand, equally immediate and parallel, it is necessary to educate our society on the importance of creating and conserving a pollution-free environment. There is a need for greater scope on the part of the State (grassroots initiatives and NGO programs are good but law makers need to get involved at a more fundamental level) for educational policies to further raise awareness, day by day, of the importance of preserving our natural resources, from the earliest stages of our children's education to creating an environmentalist awareness in our adults. The ultimate idea will be that this awareness of preservation will be internalized in a natural way and become a lifestyle, which originates in the homes, from the beginning of the upbringing of our children, the idea of preserving our nature so that we can perpetually enjoy all the resources that she is able to provide us.

Categories
Antique

When In Rome You Wear Sandals: Styles of Roman Footwear

What kind of shoes did the Romans wear and how did they make their shoes? The answer to that question(s) is simple. They made and wore primarily sandals. Fashionable right?

Yet unlike today, almost all shoes were made on strips of wood, which were a kind of simplified model of the human foot. They were used to assemble and form the individual parts of the shoe. The individual parts of the shoe were glued, nailed or sewn. For the soles Roman's used a piece of strong cow skin; for the other parts it was common to use sheepskin, goat and calf. Colored leather was also used for a more trendy touch. In addition to black, for example, there were red, white and yellow shoes. Today the remains of skin are almost always black, due to the time spent in the soil.

In most cases, the outsole was nailed to protect against wear and for better cohesion. The iron nails were fixed on the base template. The type of nailing depends on the taste of the buyer, in addition to the use and the type of shoes. Shape and technique of Roman sandals have evolved over time and can therefore serve as an aid for archeologist when dating them.

The shoes that have been found and the representations of in mural painting, sculptures and other forms of art show that there are many different types of shoes. The most important are:

  • Closed toed shoes
  • Carbatinae
  • Strap sandals
    • Caligae is the name given leather sandals, worn by legionnaires and members of the Roman auxiliary bodies. They were formed by a sole and leather straps that were tied in the center of the foot and at the top of the ankle. In military use the soles were studded with iron nails in order to reinforce them, improve the traction of the foot and "arm" them, that is, allow the soldier to inflict damage by kicking them.
  • Sandals With Toe Straps

All these styles were worn at the same times and apparently women, men and children wore the same types of shoes. Social differences were probably not in the form, rather in the value of the material.

Closed toed shoes form the main part of the shoes that have been found so far. There are many variations of these shoes, in which the foot is tightly surrounded by a piece of leather sewn into the toes or on the side of the top. Sole and instep are rarely found together because they were joined by nails and these have often been lost.

Shoes called Carbatinae were made of a single piece of leather. The basic pattern varies a bit, but essentially it always follows the same pattern. The leather is sewn into the heel and cut to the sides in the loops. It was then laterally bent and tied with a lash through the loops. This type of shoe can be made quite simply and it is possible that it was made not only by qualified shoemakers, but also by the laity.

Strap sandals (called Caligae) come in two variants: there are those that end above the ankle and were nailed. These types of sandals were used by the soldiers. On the other hand there is the type used by adults and young people which ended below the ankle and were not always nailed. The Caliga consists of three parts: between sole and insole there is an added third insole, which is cut along with the leather upper. That top was cut into ribbons, that made up the lashing for the sandal. The three parts were then joined; the upper, lower and middle were nailed together in tight rows. Often, the arch of the foot, however, strives for three nails. The upper part is closed on the heel, the joint is protected internally and externally by a strip of leather. The loops which are then formed are joined by a leather strap.

Simple Roman sandals are still used today.

The shape of the sole mimics the foot and the toes are sometimes marked by incisions. It consists of a maximum of four layers of sewn leather. The toe strap is fixed on a loop, which is located in the insole between the big toe and the second. The method of fixing them and heel varies by design.

It is safe to say that through their long tradition and improvement throughout the ages our modern footwear owes a great deal to the innovation that came from Roman cobblers.

Categories
Climate Change

Today’s Endangered Animals

What do the different species mean to our planet? The vastly different species are the building blocks of biodiversity and ecosystems, but over time more animal species are added to the list of endangered animals, according to data from the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), currently 5,200 species of animals are endangered, an alarming figure.

While different organizations, foundations, among others, work to protect and preserve different species of animals, many more are attacking their life, their habitat and in the same way against the ecosystem itself.

It takes everyone's help—no matter how small—to bring about change.

Some Endangered Animals.

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Climate Change

The Alarming Rate of Animal Extinction

Biologist E. O. Wilson estimated in 2002 that if current rates of human destruction of the biosphere continue, one-half of all plant and animal species of life on earth will be extinct in 100 years. — E.O. Wilson, "The Future of Life" (2002) (ISBN 0-679-76811-4).

Over the last few centuries, the grizzly bear has suffered a marked reduction in its number of specimens in Europe.

In the first half of this century the bears of the eastern half of Austria have disappear, which, together with the reduction of inhabitable area, this once prominent symbol of Europe is just one more victim of human directed extinction.

In Austria the number of specimens decreased alarmingly and the danger of extinction was high, but by 2011 they were officially extinct in the Limestone Alps. This large majestic brown bear went extinct in the region when the last specimen "Moritz" disappeared. As we move closer to their complete demise (Northern Italy & Austria have an estimated 15 to 30 animals remaining) we lose some of our history, because of its relationship with man, the brown bear has become a figure which is deeply rooted in our culture. As Americans we have just as much to lose, as the bear — as a symbol — emigrated to the United States with our forefathers.

I though that it would be pertinent to share a little information about these fascinating animals.

This animal has a reputation for having an extraordinary smell, much better than that of hunting dogs, as evident by the great development of its nostrils. Although it is probably an exaggeration, one legend tales of an American brown bear, the so-called "Grizzly" who smelled carrion 20 miles away.

Their poor eyesight is often criticized and said to be short-sighted, although scientists point out that this is very relative. Indeed they seem to have a hard time seeing well from afar, compensating for their lack of sight with smell and hearing; but up close bears can see very clearly.

Another curious feature about their behavior is that their hearing is very good and when bears hear something strange, especially if it's something they have not yet perceived with his fine sense of smell, can make them nervous which leads them to get up on two legs to inspect it further. If the bear discovers the presence of a human or any other danger, they will in most cases slip away undetected. Though bear attacks are not unheard of, a female with offspring can be very aggressive even if unprovoked.

Especially now as their habitats are becoming more inhabited by humans attacks are more common.

Bears have traditionally lived in northern regions and for thousands of years have never been forced to share their habitat with humans; in the last century this has changed.

Hibernation

When winter advances and snowfall becomes persistent they seek a refuge to protect themselves. It does not have to be a very large cave to provide a bear with shelter, sometimes, a hole excavated will suffice, taking advantage of the existing holes under some rock or tree. What matters most to them when choosing their resting place is the security that it can provide. Thus, hibernation takes place in areas that are difficult to reach, although not necessarily remote, and sometimes can be very close to human populations.

Prior to hibernation bears have to feed enough in the late summer and falls months to increase their body fat reserves, reserves that are especially located around the kidneys and reach up to six inches thick. This is because the harsh conditions of nature in the winter months require extra in insulation. Bears hibernate because of the shortage of food and even water, which can be icy, and in addition low temperatures would require a higher than usual consumption of food to maintain body alone temperature.

Refugee seeking grizzly bears in their winter sleep curl up snuggly around themselves. Their body temperature drops from the usual 100°F to 90 to 91°F. Their pulse also decreases from 40 to 10 beats per minute and their breathing rate drops similarly. They fall into a deep sleep in which they do not urinate or defecate until they emerge in the spring.

Their winter habitats offer conditions are relatively pleasant compared to the harshness outside, sleeping in a nest made from leaf, moss and branches, all of which provide good conditions of thermal insulation and, together with the heat generated by the animal's own body, they keep the temperature within tolerable limits.

The time spent in the hibernation is usually one or two months, though this can be longer in colder climates. The bears with cubs remain in their dens along with their offspring for four months.

The grizzly bear is an omnivorous animal, with a marked vegetarian tendency. Staple foods are mainly herbaceous in spring, meaty fruits in summer and nuts in autumn and winter.

The place where a plant or animal lives is called its habitat. In the case of bears, it occurs in several different areas: the forest areas, the scrub and rocky and the grassy pastures in the mountains and even sometimes even the meadows of the lower part of a valley.

The small populations in many countries are subject to varying degrees of legal protection to protect them in their dwindling habitats. Internationally, the populations of Asian brown bears are listed in Annex I (total trade ban), the rest in Annex II (restricted trade). In some countries, this species enjoys a year-round or several-month closed season. In addition, multi-level management plans are implemented to protect bears and farm animals. In other countries, there is no or little legal protection for this species. According to the population, it is listed in Annex I (total trade ban) and Annex II (restricted trade) in the European Species Protection Regulation. Restricted hunting is allowed in the eastern range (Russia).

Furthermore, this subspecies is kept in many zoological facilities throughout Europe. However, for many of the brown bears kept in zoos, the information on the origin, and thus the exact subspecies status, is deficient, leading to an inconsistent lineage. In addition, there are several bear protection facilities, which have set the task of keeping former dance, circus and zoo bears as their task.

For reasons of species protection, few bears were reintroduced in the French Massif (where they were extinct in 1990, origin: Pyrenees) and in the Italian and Austrian Alps (origin: Slovenia). Some reintroduced bears fell victim to the poaching of local hunters.

Categories
Democracy

Sinister Interests

Sinister Interests are a political concept developed by Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832) from 1794, when his project to build a panopticon prison in Millbank(London) was approved by the English parliament. This prison was never built because two important aristocratic families (Spencer and Grosvenor) used the state apparatus to preserve their own speculative interests in that area of London. Bentham appreciated that rulers, rather than being motivated by achieving the greatest happiness for the greatest number of their subjects, sought to promote their own happiness above and at the expense of the well-being of the community.

In a modern sense of the term a touch of mass manipulation is added using political lies to make civil society believe that the particular interests of rulers are those of civil society. In this sense three centuries before Christ Sun Tzu already wrote in "The Art Of War":

Generally in the method of war, the fundamental principle is to make the measures of government prevail supremely. If this is done, then the affected people will have no quarrel between them, and having no disputes will not be aware of their own interests while retaining the government's interest in mind.

The sinister interest is manifested with three rules:

  1. The right of the vote converted by the media into the duty of the citizen to the rule, being excluded, when exercised, of political freedom.
  2. The speculative versus productive economy bearing the interest of financial capita.
  3. Finally, the state of autonomy, which has promoted the interest of local oligarchies by destroying civil society with the goals of exclusionary nationalisms.

A democracy establishes two measures that directly affect the sinister interest: the imperative mandate and the ability of citizens to depose their rulers.